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17/11/2019
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Convention on the Law of the Sea

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982

CONTENTS

PREAMBLE

PART I. INTRODUCTION

  • Article 1. Use of terms and scope

PART II. TERRITORIAL SEA AND CONTIGUOUS ZONE

SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

 

  • Article 2. Legal status of the territorial sea, of the air space over the territorial sea and of its bed and subsoil

SECTION 2. LIMITS OF THE TERRITORIAL SEA

  • Article 3. Breadth of the territorial sea
  • Article 4. Outer limit of the territorial sea
  • Article 5. Normal baseline
  • Article 6. Reefs
  • Article 7. Straight baselines
  • Article 8. Internal waters
  • Article 9. Mouths of rivers
  • Article 10. Bays
  • Article 11. Ports
  • Article 12. Roadsteads
  • Article 13. Low-tide elevations
  • Article 14. Combination of methods for determining baselines
  • Article 15. Delimitation of the territorial sea between States with opposite or adjacent coasts
  • Article 16. Charts and lists of geographical coordinates

 

SECTION 3. INNOCENT PASSAGE IN THE TERRITORIAL SEA

SUBSECTION A. RULES APPLICABLE TO ALL SHIPS

  • Article 17. Right of innocent passage
  • Article 18. Meaning of passage
  • Article 19. Meaning of innocent passage
  • Article 20. Submarines and other underwater vehicles
  • Article 21. Laws and regulations of the coastal State relating to innocent passage
  • Article 22. Sea lanes and traffic separation schemes in the territorial sea
  • Article 23. Foreign nuclear-powered ships and ships carrying nuclear or other inherently dangerous or noxious substances
  • Article 24. Duties of the coastal State
  • Article 25. Rights of protection of the coastal State
  • Article 26. Charges which may be levied upon foreign ships

SUBSECTION B. RULES APPLICABLE TO MERCHANT SHIPS AND GOVERNMENT SHIPS OPERATED FOR COMMERCIAL PURPOSES

  • Article 27. Criminal jurisdiction on board a foreign ship
  • Article 28. Civil jurisdiction in relation to foreign ships

SUBSECTION C. RULES APPLICABLE TO WARSHIPS AND OTHER GOVERNMENT SHIPS OPERATED FOR NON-COMMERCIAL PURPOSES

  • Article 29. Definition of warships
  • Article 30. Non-compliance by warships with the laws and regulations of the coastal State
  • Article 31. Responsibility of the flag State for damage caused by a warship or other government ship operated for non-commercial purposes
  • Article 32. Immunities of warships and other government ships operated for non-commercial purposes

SECTION 4. CONTIGUOUS ZONE

  • Article 33. Contiguous zone

PART III. STRAITS USED FOR INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION

SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

SECTION 2. TRANSIT PASSAGE

SECTION 3. INNOCENT PASSAGE

PART IV. ARCHIPELAGIC STATES

PART V. EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE

PART VI. CONTINENTAL SHELF

PART VII. HIGH SEAS

 

SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

SECTION 2. CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE LIVING RESOURCES OF THE HIGH SEAS

PART VIII. REGIME OF ISLANDS

PART IX. ENCLOSED OR SEMI-ENCLOSED SEAS

PART X. RIGHT OF ACCESS OF LAND-LOCKED STATES TO AND FROM THE SEA AND FREEDOM OF TRANSIT

PART XI. THE AREA

 

SECTION l. GENERAL PROVISIONS

 

 

SECTION 2. PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THE AREA

SECTION 3. DEVELOPMENT OF RESOURCES OF THE AREA

SECTION 4. THE AUTHORITY

SUBSECTION A. GENERAL PROVISIONS

  • Article 156. Establishment of the Authority
  • Article 157. Nature and fundamental principles of the Authority
  • Article 158. Organs of the Authority

SUBSECTION B. THE ASSEMBLY

  • Article 159. Composition, procedure and voting
  • Article 160. Powers and functions

SUBSECTION C. THE COUNCIL

  • Article 161. Composition, procedure and voting
  • Article 162. Powers and functions
  • Article 163. Organs of the Council
  • Article 164. The Economic Planning Commission
  • Article 165. The Legal and Technical Commission

SUBSECTION D. THE SECRETARIAT

  • Article 166. The Secretariat
  • Article 167. The staff of the Authority
  • Article 168. International character of the Secretariat
  • Article 169. Consultation and cooperation with international and non-governmental organizations

SUBSECTION E. THE ENTERPRISE

  • Article 170. The Enterprise

SUBSECTION F. FINANCIAL ARRANGEMENTS OF THE AUTHORITY

  • Article 171. Funds of the Authority
  • Article 172. Annual budget of the Authority
  • Article 173. Expenses of the Authority
  • Article 174. Borrowing power of the Authority
  • Article 175. Annual audit

SUBSECTION G. LEGAL STATUS, PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES

  • Article 176. Legal status
  • Article 177. Privileges and immunities
  • Article 178. Immunity from legal process
  • Article 179. Immunity from search and any form of seizure
  • Article 180. Exemption from restrictions, regulations, controls and moratoria
  • Article 181. Archives and official communications of the Authority
  • Article 182. Privileges and immunities of certain persons connected with the Authority
  • Article 183. Exemption from taxes and customs duties

SUBSECTION H. SUSPENSION OF THE EXERCISE OF RIGHTS AND PRIVILEGES OF MEMBERS

  • Article 184. Suspension of the exercise of voting rights
  • Article 185. Suspension of exercise of rights and privileges of membership

SECTION 5. SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES AND ADVISORY OPINIONS

PART XII. PROTECTION AND PRESERVATION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

SECTION 2. GLOBAL AND REGIONAL COOPERATION

SECTION 3. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE

SECTION 4. MONITORING AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

SECTION 5. INTERNATIONAL RULES AND NATIONAL LEGISLATION TO PREVENT, REDUCE AND CONTROL POLLUTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

SECTION 6. ENFORCEMENT

SECTION 7. SAFEGUARDS

SECTION 8. ICE-COVERED AREAS

SECTION 9. RESPONSIBILITY AND LIABILITY

SECTION 10. SOVEREIGN IMMUNITY

SECTION 11. OBLIGATIONS UNDER OTHER CONVENTIONS ON THE PROTECTION AND PRESERVATION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

PART XIII. MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

SECTION 2. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

SECTION 3. CONDUCT AND PROMOTION OF MARINE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

SECTION 4. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTALLATIONS OR EQUIPMENT IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

SECTION 5. RESPONSIBILITY AND LIABILITY

SECTION 6. SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES AND INTERIM MEASURES

PART XIV. DEVELOPMENT AND TRANSFER OF MARINE TECHNOLOGY

SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

SECTION 2. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

SECTION 3. NATIONAL AND REGIONAL MARINE SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL CENTRES

SECTION 4. COOPERATION AMONG INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

PART XV. SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES

SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

SECTION 2. COMPULSORY PROCEDURES ENTAILING BINDING DECISIONS

SECTION 3. LIMITATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS TO APPLICABILITY OF SECTION 2

PART XVI. GENERAL PROVISIONS

PART XVII. FINAL PROVISIONS

 

Annexes to the Convention

ANNEX I. HIGHLY MIGRATORY SPECIES

ANNEX II. COMMISSION ON THE LIMITS OF THE CONTINENTAL SHELF

ANNEX III. BASIC CONDITIONS OF PROSPECTING, EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION

ANNEX IV. STATUTE OF THE ENTERPRISE

ANNEX V. CONCILIATION

SECTION 1. CONCILIATION PROCEDURE PURSUANT TO SECTION 1 OF PART XV

SECTION 2. COMPULSORY SUBMISSION TO CONCILIATION PROCEDURE PURSUANT TO SECTION 3 OF PART XV

ANNEX VI. STATUTE OF THE INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE LAW OF THE SEA

 

SECTION 1. ORGANIZATION OF THE TRIBUNAL

SECTION 2. COMPETENCE

SECTION 3. PROCEDURE

SECTION 4. SEABED DISPUTES CHAMBER

SECTION 5. AMENDMENTS

ANNEX VII. ARBITRATION

ANNEX VIII. SPECIAL ARBITRATION

ANNEX IX. PARTICIPATION BY INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

  • Article 1. Institution of proceedings
    • Article 2. List of conciliators
    • Article 3. Constitution of conciliation commission
    • Article 4. Procedure
    • Article 5. Amicable settlement
    • Article 6. Functions of the commission
    • Article 7. Report
    • Article 8. Termination
    • Article 9. Fees and expenses
    • Article 10. Right of parties to modify procedure
    • Article 11. Institution of proceedings
    • Article 12. Failure to reply or to submit to conciliation
    • Article 13. Competence
    • Article 14. Application of section 1
    • Article 1. General provisions
    • Article 2. Composition
    • Article 3. Membership
    • Article 4. Nominations and elections
    • Article 5. Term of office
    • Article 6. Vacancies
    • Article 7. Incompatible activities
    • Article 8. Conditions relating to participation of members in a particular case
    • Article 9. Consequence of ceasing to fulfil required conditions
    • Article 10. Privileges and immunities
    • Article 11. Solemn declaration by members
    • Article 12. President, Vice-President and Registrar
    • Article 13. Quorum
    • Article 14. Seabed Disputes Chamber
    • Article 15. Special chambers
    • Article 16. Rules of the Tribunal
    • Article 17. Nationality of members
    • Article 18. Remuneration of members
    • Article 19. Expenses of the Tribunal
    • Article 20. Access to the Tribunal
    • Article 21. Jurisdiction
    • Article 22 Reference of disputes subject to other agreements
    • Article 23. Applicable law
    • Article 24. Institution of proceedings
    • Article 25. Provisional measures
    • Article 26. Hearing
    • Article 27. Conduct of case
    • Article 28. Default
    • Article 29. Majority for decision
    • Article 30. Judgment
    • Article 31. Request to intervene
    • Article 32 Right to intervene in cases of interpretation or application
    • Article 33. Finality and binding force of decisions
    • Article 34. Costs
    • Article 35. Composition
    • Article 36. Ad hoc chambers
    • Article 37. Access
    • Article 38. Applicable law
    • Article 39. Enforcement of decisions of the Chamber
    • Article 40. Applicability of other sections of this Annex
    • Article 41. Amendments
      • Article 1. Institution of proceedings
      • Article 2. List of arbitrators
      • Article 3. Constitution of arbitral tribunal
      • Article 4. Functions of arbitral tribunal
      • Article 5. Procedure
      • Article 6. Duties of parties to a dispute
      • Article 7. Expenses
      • Article 8. Required majority for decisions
      • Article 9. Default of appearance
      • Article 10. Award
      • Article 11. Finality of award
      • Article 12. Interpretation or implementation of award
      • Article 13. Application to entities other than States Parties
      • Article 1. Institution of proceedings
      • Article 2. Lists of experts
      • Article 3. Constitution of special arbitral tribunal
      • Article 4. General provisions
      • Article 5. Fact finding
      • Article 1. Use of terms
      • Article 2. Signature
      • Article 3. Formal confirmation and accession
      • Article 4. Extent of participation and rights and obligations
      • Article 5. Declarations, notifications and communications
      • Article 6. Responsibility and liability
      • Article 7. Settlement of disputes
      • Article 8. Applicability of Part XVII